A Lighter Introduction to Hi-Lite

Hi-Lite is based on powerful industrial tools that have been developed by the different partners for the last 10 to 25 years. In order to show you how Hi-Lite can improve on the existing state-of-the-art by creating new communications between these tools, we describe in the following the application of the various tools and techniques that are part of Hi-Lite to a very simple program.

A Story of Gossip, Bugs and Redemption

Alice and Bob* are web software developers, and they have been tasked with the creation of a program to compute the total price of a customer's basket for GOSSIP.COM, which provides gossip on the rich and famous at very fair prices.

This job reminded them of a similar project where their friend Cyrille got fired. He had used machine integers to compute the price of baskets of sweets, unfortunately this allowed a 6-year old hacker in some remote country to get a dozen tons of sweets and half a million Euros. He ordered so many sweets that the price of his basket overflew the capacity of machine integers and became negative. So instead of having to pay a huge amount of money, the boy got rich instead.

Learning from this lesson, Alice and Bob have decided to use saturating integers to compute the price of their baskets of gossip. One of the requirements they have received from their contact point at GOSSIP.COM stipulates that no individual sell should exceed 9,999 Euros. So that integers which range from 0 to 10,000 provide an adequate representation of both valid and invalid baskets: the price of a valid basket ranges from 0 to 9,999 Euros, while an invalid basket has a fixed saturating price of 10,000 Euros.

As good software engineering mandates, they have split the problem in smaller tasks that will be implemented either by Bob or Alice. For a start, Alice has proposed to implement basic arithmetic operations on saturating integers while Bob implements how to compute the price of a gossip, taking into account how many times the customer wants to repeat it (the gossips are using DRM so that you can only repeat a gossip once) and the total price of a basket.

Before they delve into their IDEs, Alice and Bob have agreed on an interface for the operations on saturating integers. As they don't know whether their management will not suddenly impose on them Ada or C, they have decided to do the job in both languages.

Here is the Ada code for the interface:

subtype My_Int is Integer range 0 .. 10_000;

function Add (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int;
function Mult (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int;

and the C code for the same interface:

int add (int x, int y);
int mult (int x, int y);

Alice and Bob work separately for a few days and meet again when they are done. They put their code together and start testing it. Alas, none of the tests works! For example, for a basket with a single gossip which costs 10 Euros, they compute a price of 6,418 Euros in Ada and 10,000 Euros in C!

Here is Alice's code in Ada:

function Add (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int is
   if X + Y < 10_000 then 
      return X + Y;
      return 10_000;
   end if;
end Add;

function Mult (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int is
   if X * Y < 10_000 then 
      return X + Y;
      return 10_000;
   end if;
end Mult;

and in C:

int add (int x, int y) {
   if (x + y < 10000)
      return x + y;
      return 10000;

int mult (int x, int y) {
   if (x * y < 10000)
      return x + y;
      return 10000;

Here is Bob's code in Ada:

type Item is record
   Price  : My_Int;
   Number : My_Int;
end record;

function Price_Of_Item (It : Item) return My_Int is
   return Mult (It.Price, It.Number);
end Price_Of_Item;

type Basket is array (Positive range <>) of Item;

function Price_Of_Basket (Bk : Basket) return My_Int is
   Total : My_Int;
   for It in Bk'Range loop
      Total := Add (Total, Price_Of_Item (Bk (It)));
   end loop;
   return Total;
end Price_Of_Basket;

and in C:

typedef struct _Item {
   int price;
   int number;
} Item;

int price_of_item (Item it) {
   return mult (it.price, it.number);

typedef Item* Basket;

int price_of_basket (Basket bk, int len) {
   int total;
   int it;
   for (it = 0; it < len; it++) {
      total = add (total, price_of_item (bk[it]));
   return total;

Moreover, by repeating the test in Ada, they get different results: 10,000 Euros, 9,257 Euros and even a run-time error because a range check failed. All these results strongly suggest that their program must be unintentionally reading some uninitialized memory.

As they realize one of them must have made such a mistake, Alice asks Bob if he has compiled his code with all the warnings of the Ada and C compilers, to which Bob confesses that he has not! So they call 'gcc -c -gnatwa' on the Ada code and 'gcc -c -Wall' on the C code.

The Ada compiler gives them the answer:

warning: "Total" may be referenced before it has a value

Indeed, variable Total is only assigned based on its previous value in function Price_Of_Basket, and it is not initialized! So the first value read from Total is completely random. Total should be instead initialized with the value zero. So they correct Bob's Ada and C code to reflect that.

The answers of the Ada and C programs are now consistent and repeatable, although still incorrect! For the above basket of one gossip costing 10 Euros, both programs return a price of 11 Euros.

It's Bob's turn to ask Alice if she has properly unit tested her module, to which she admits she has not! So they devise a set of inputs for testing the saturating addition and multiplication. For the addition, all tests run fine. For the multiplication, nearly all tests fail. Alice then proposes to use a static analyzer she knows of for Ada programs, CodePeer. She ran it on her code with no warnings being reported, but she has not looked at the contracts that CodePeer generated. She thinks that the contract of the multiplication may give a clue of what's going on. So they run the tool, which generates the following contract for the multiplication:

--  Subprogram: sat.mult
--  Preconditions:
--    (soft) X + Y in 0..10_000
--    (soft) X*Y in 0..99_980_001
--  Postconditions:
--    sat.mult'Result = One-of{X + Y, 10_000}
--    possibly_init'ed(sat.mult'Result)
--  Test Vectors:
--    X*Y: {0..9_999}, {10_000..99_980_001}

The result of the multiplication is either 10_000 in case it saturates, or ... X + Y! Clearly there must be a mistake in the code. To check this on their test, Bob proposes to add a postcondition to the Mult function in Ada, using the appropriate GNAT pragma:

function Mult (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int;
pragma Postcondition (Mult'Result = X * Y or else Mult'Result = 10_000);

When compiling the Ada code with "gcc -c -gnata", assertions are kept in the generated executable, and running it on their example yields a run-time error:

raised SYSTEM.ASSERTIONS.ASSERT_FAILURE : Postcondition failed at sat.ads:7

So there is for sure a problem in function Mult. By reviewing it carefully, they discover that the function Mult is returning X + Y instead of X * Y, which is a left-over of the Add function that Alice copy-pasted to write the Mult function. So they correct this second mistake in both Ada and C.

Finally, they get correct results for all the unit tests they have written. So they rerun their complete test with the simple basket and it returns the correct result this time: 10 Euros. To increase their confidence, they write a few more tests which run fine, but they are still unsure that there is no mistake left. After all, they found two mistakes already, on both parts they worked on.

So Alice proposes to use the test vectors generated by CodePeer. These partition the possible values of inputs into sets, so that two inputs in the same set will follow the same execution path in the function. With their current code, the test vectors of the addition are:

--  Test Vectors:
--    X + Y: {0..9_999}, {10_000..20_000}

which indicate that by choosing X and Y so that X + Y is below or above 10,000, they will follow two different paths in function Add. They look at the unit tests that they wrote for function Add, and they all correspond to the first case, which means they only tested part of the function so far. So they add one test that falls in the second case, and it runs fine too.

When they are done adding tests to cover all test vectors, Bob suggests that they check if these tests actually cover all the code they have written. All statements should be executed at least once with the testsuite they have put in place. Using gcov, they check that it is indeed the case.

Bob would like to add contracts using GNAT pragmas to all functions, but Alice has heard about existing tools for actually proving statically that your code does what it is supposed to do, based on slightly different contracts. Instead of executing the contracts at run-time on an existing testsuite, which can be incomplete, these tools analyze mathematical contracts together with the code and can guarantee that all executions of the code will respect the given contracts. This seems impressive so Bob accepts to give it a try.

Here are the contracts in SPARK, a subset of Ada with additional logical constructs in stylized Ada comments:

function Add (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int;
--# return Sum => (X + Y < 10_000 and Sum = X + Y) or
--#               (X + Y >= 10_000 and Sum = 10_000);

function Mult (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int;
--# return Prod => (X * Y < 10_000 and Prod = X * Y) or
--#                (X * Y >= 10_000 and Prod = 10_000);

function Price_Of_Item (It : Item) return Sat.My_Int;
--# return Sat.Mult (It.Price, It.Number);

function Price_Of_Basket (Bk : Basket) return Sat.My_Int;
--# return Price => for all It in Positive range Bk'Range =>
--#                   (Price >= Price_Of_Item (Bk (It)));

Here are the contracts in ACSL, a logical language for C code, also in stylized C comments:

/*@ requires 0 <= x <= 10000 && 0 <= y <= 10000;
    ensures (x + y < 10000 && \result == x + y) ||
            (x + y >= 10000 && \result == 10000); 
int add (int x, int y);

/*@ requires 0 <= x <= 10000 && 0 <= y <= 10000;
    ensures (x * y < 10000 && \result == x * y) ||
            (x * y >= 10000 && \result == 10000); 
int mult (int x, int y);

/*@ predicate type_item{S} (Item* it) =
       0 <= it->price <= 10000 && 0 <= it->number <= 10000;

/*@ logic integer mult (integer x, integer y) = 
       x * y <= 10000 ? x * y : 10000;

/*@ requires type_item (&it);
    ensures \result == mult (it.price, it.number);
int price_of_item (Item it);

/*@ logic integer price_of_item{S} (Item* it) = 
       mult (it->price, it->number);

/*@ predicate type_basket{S} (Basket bk, integer len) =
       \forall int it; 0 <= it < len ==> type_item (&bk[it]);

/*@ requires \valid_range(bk, 0, len - 1) && type_basket (bk, len);
    ensures \forall int it; 0 <= it < len ==> 
                               \result >= price_of_item (&bk[it]);
int price_of_basket (Basket bk, int len);

The contracts in SPARK are slightly simpler because the stronger typing rules of Ada and SPARK give more guarantees than the typing rules in C. So that SPARK contracts consist here of only postconditions, while ACSL contracts also need preconditions here. In SPARK, contracts can call functions, which are guaranteed in SPARK not to have any side-effect. In C, this is not the case, so contracts must call logic functions, which the user must define. Here, Alice and Bob have defined logic functions mult and price_of_item to represent in the logic the effect of calling the corresponding functions in the code.

The bodies of Ada functions required small adjustments to be legal SPARK code, while the bodies of C functions were kept untouched. Only one annotation was needed in the body of Price_Of_Basket (SPARK) and price_of_basket (C) to give the loop invariant, i.e. the predicate that the loop maintains which allows to prove the function postcondition.

Although this was quite some work compared to the initial coding, Alice and Bob finally run the proof tools of each technology (Simplifier, Alt-Ergo) and manage to prove that their implementation does not raise any run-time exceptions when called in an appropriate context (given by the preconditions), and that the functions implement the desired functionality. Note that for the price of a basket, they did not express the complete functionality in the postcondition, but only a weaker property that the computed price is greater than the price of any given gossip in the basket.

So finally they can submit their work with the assurance that everybody will pay for the gossip they repeat, for which they get amazing FREE gossip on the personal life of their past 5 presidents. While reading through these and sipping a caipirinha, Bob still has some doubts about the process they followed, which he confesses to Alice:

Bob - I know we did the right thing, but that was painful, right?
Alice - Yes, I know. But look at what we started from: two nasty bugs in the code that we trusted...
Bob - I must confess I am not very proud of this... But still, there must be a better way, using the same technology! Look, we have expressed the correction of our functions in THREE different ways: as tests, as contracts in GNAT pragma syntax, and as contracts in some logic languages!
Alice - Wait... I think I have heard about a project where they aim at having a single language for all these... Hi-Lite maybe...


Three years later, the project Hi-Lite has reached all its goals. For the fun of it, Alice and Bob return to their old code and rewrite an Ada interface with proper contracts and tests in the annotation language ALFA defined by Hi-Lite:

function Add (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int
   with Post => (if X + Y < 10_000 then Add'Result = X + Y
                                   else Add'Result = 10_000),
        Test_1 => (if X = 10 and Y < 9_990 then Add'Result = X + Y),
        Test_2 => (if X = 11 and Y = 9_990 then Add'Result = 10_000);

function Mult (X , Y : My_Int) return My_Int
   with Post => (if X * Y < 10_000 then Mult'Result = X * Y
                                   else Mult'Result = 10_000),
        Test_1 => (if X = 10 and Y < 1_000 then Mult'Result = X * Y),
        Test_2 => (if X = 11 and Y = 1_000 then Mult'Result = 10_000);

function Price_Of_Item (It : Item) return My_Int
   with Post => Price_Of_Item'Result = Mult (It.Price, It.Number),
        Test_1 => (if It.Price = 10 and It.Number < 1_000 then 
                      Price_Of_Item'Result = 10 * It.Number),
        Test_2 => (if It.Price = 11 and It.Number = 1_000 then 
                      Price_Of_Item'Result = 10_000);

function Price_Of_Basket (Bk : Basket) return My_Int
   with Post => for all It in Bk'Range : (Price >= Price_Of_Item (Bk (It))),
        Test_1 => (if Bk(1).Price = 10 and Bk(1).Number < 1_000 then 
                      Price_Of_Basket'Result >= 10 * It.Number),
        Test_2 => (if Bk(1).Price = 11 and Bk(1).Number = 1_000 then 
                      Price_Of_Basket'Result = 10_000);

Alice then implements her part in C, starting from the interfaces automatically generated from the ones she has written with Bob in Ada, with annotations in ALFA translated in E-ACSL. She can formally verify that her code implements the contracts she has agreed upon with Bob using the Frama-C/Why/Alt-Ergo toolset. All with one click in her editor.

Bob implements his part in the Spark profile of Ada, richer than SPARK but more restricted than full Ada. This allows him to also prove his implementation cannot raise run-time errors and respects the given contracts, provided the functions that Alice provides him do the same. This is much easier than what he recalls from three years before, as he could execute the contracts in the debugger, and automatically generate thousands of tests from the Test aspects attached to the functions. So that each function was indeed correctly implementing its contract even before he tried to prove it formally.

* Note: Alice and Bob used to work as healthy volunteers in experiences for the cryptographic industry, but they have switched to the web industry when cryptographers got interested in quantum computing and they saw what occured to Schrödinger's cat.

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